A JUDGMENT ON HISTORY—THE WAR 15 industry The " boutgeoization" of man on the one hand and his "proletarianization" on the other have been fatal fot personality, for individual existence. Capitalism is above all anti- personal, the power of anonymity over human life. Capitalism uses man as goods for sale. Everyone agrees that the war was a revelation of a non-brotherly, non-social attitude among men, .that it revealed a terrible lack of inner unity, even in the presence of external comradeship and iron discipline. But even without the world war, the bourgeois-capitalist world was a denial of all brotherhood, generality and unity among men. " Man is a wolf to man." The life of the capitalist world is lupine. The war disclosed a complete absence of solidarity and union among men, save the bonds enforced by the discipline of the barracks. It revealed the superficiality of the process of humanization and how thin was the layer of human society which had been really affected by humanizing forces. In the world war and since, there have been active monstrous> otganized collectives, beneath which trembles chaos. The war was already a judgment upon history, an immanent judgment upon history itself. It utterly destroyed all illusions: it was a colossal disillusionment in the idealistic under- standing not only of history, but of all high ideals.